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International teleprinter code assigns a pattern of five pulses and pauses to each character.Using the Bletchley convention of representing a pulse by a cross and no pulse by a dot, the letter C, for example, is •••. gave each link a piscine name: Berlin-Paris was Jellyfish, Berlin-Rome was Bream, Berlin-Copenhagen Turbot (see right-hand column).

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Some or all of the wheels moved each time the operator typed a character at the teleprinter keyboard (or in the case of an ‘auto’ transmission from a pre-punched tape, each time a new letter was read in from the tape). They stood side by side in a single row, like plates in a dish rack.For example, adding N to M produces T, as we have just seen, and then adding N to T leads back to M (see right-hand column).This explains how the receiver’s Tunny decrypted the ciphertext.The Tunny machine Tunny was one of three types of teleprinter cipher machine used by the Germans.(The North American term for ‘teleprinter’ is ‘teletypewriter’.) At Bletchley Park (B. The Tunny machine, which measured 19" by 15½" by 17" high, was a cipher attachment.A radio operator then transmitted the ciphertext in the form of Morse code.

Morse code was not used with Tunny: the output of the Tunny machine, encrypted teleprinter code, went directly to air.

Sometimes a land line was used in preference to radio.

In this case, the truck carrying the Tunnies was connected up directly to the telephone system.

A later version, the SZ42A, was introduced in February 1943, followed by the SZ42B in June 1944.

‘40’ and ‘42’ appear to refer to years, as in ‘Windows 97’.

The transmitted ‘ciphertext’ (the encrypted form of the message) was not seen by the German operators.