The geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers.
The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank.The ridge is pierced by Surrey's principal rivers, the Wey and the Mole, which are tributaries of the Thames, the river which formed the northern border of the county before modern local government reorganisations.To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames.The Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which also extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs. It contains a good deal of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves).Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons.It is either 293, Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 66,773; Woking comes a close second with 62,796.
They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155.
Due to this expansion, modern Surrey also borders on the London boroughs of Hillingdon, Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames, Kingston upon Thames, Sutton, Croydon and Bromley.
Surrey is noted for being a particularly wealthy county due in large part to its proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports along with access to major arterial road routes (including the M25, M3 and M23) and frequent rail services into Central London.
The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names.
These include the Godhelmingas (around Godalming) and Woccingas (between Woking and Wokingham in Berkshire).
During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey was the London suburb of Southwark (now part of Greater London), but there were small towns at Staines, Ewell, Dorking, Croydon and Kingston upon Thames.