Validating the school culture survey
Answering this question may be at the helm of a more sophisticated counseling approach that begs consideration in today's society. Arnett (2002) and Giddens (2000) noted that diversity is shaping and creating multitextured personal and social identities which underscore the observation that we are becoming bicultural, multicultural, and hybrid communities.
Undoubtedly, issues regarding spirituality and religion surface in relation to life events such as religious differences in intimate relationships, deciding on how to raise children, illness and pain, death and dying and learning to live more congruently to one's values. In today's global society, consequences of not attending to these salient contextual dimensions may limit the level of understanding for counseling professionals to assist their clients and may even thwart their growth and development (Boyd-Franklin & Lockwood, 1999; Cervantes & Parham, 2005; Comas-Daz & Greene, 1994; Fukuyama & Funderburk, 2001). This article asserts the position of an intricate connection between gender, culture, and spirituality which influences the therapeutic process, and is crucial to competent therapeutic assessment and intervention. Multidimensionality of Gender Cultural diversity embodies a number of factors that individuals bring to therapy and gender is a dimension that plays a critical role. The importance of sex and gender as significant variables to consider in counseling process goes largely undisputed. Further, these dimensions will likely affect the manner in which inquiry is asked of a client and how one's human story unfolds.
To examine solely psychological symptoms and complaints as the primary dimension in counseling process disregards the complexity of professional practice now evident (Fukuyama & Funderburk, 2001; Hays, 2001; Stanard, Sandhu, & Painter, 2000).
Adequacy of a counselor's understanding regarding the scope of religious conflicts and client's cultural differences are now questioned (Bergin, 1991; Taylor, 2000; Warwick, 2002).
A relevant study conducted by O'Connor and Vandenberg (2005) investigating religious beliefs among mental health professionals in their randomly assigned case vignettes demonstrates a level of confusion about how counselors evaluate a client's religion and spirituality in counseling practice.
A critical variable for men and women is reflected in their relatedness to spirituality or religious practices. Gender and counseling in the twenty-first century: What does the future hold?
Spirituality/religion is a part of one's cultural milieu and informs meaning, value and direction of human issues (Miller, 1995; Pargament, 1997; Shafranske & Malony, 1990).
Contact regarding this manuscript should be made with Joseph M.