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[33] Bipedalism is rarely found outside terrestrial animals, though at least two types of octopus walk bipedally on the sea floor using two of their arms, allowing the remaining arms to be used to camouflage the octopus as a mat of algae or a floating coconut.[64] In addition, this model is supported by a number of modern human traits associated with concealed ovulation (permanently enlarged breasts, lack of sexual swelling) and low sperm competition (moderate sized testes, low sperm mid-piece volume) that argues against recent adaptation to a polygynous reproductive system.

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Con un articolo che chiarisce il legame tra i temi della #Dieta Mediterranea e l'urgenza di #sostenibilità sociale ed economica #topic @QMagazine_Ita @Quiiky Viaggi A Iceberg è in Italia, portata da Giuseppe Perna e Carla Rocchi (Enpa).Since 2000 Carsten Niemitz has published a series of papers and a book [78] on a variant of the wading hypothesis, which he calls the amphibian generalist theory (German: Amphibische Generalistentheorie).looked at how the most arboreal great ape, the orangutan, held onto supporting branches in order to navigate branches that were too flexible or unstable otherwise.There are a number of states of movement commonly associated with bipedalism.[10] Even if one ignores exceptions caused by some kind of injury or illness, there are many unclear cases, including the fact that normal humans can crawl on hands and knees.It has also been thought that consistent water-based food sources had developed early hominid dependency and facilitated dispersal along seas and rivers.

[53] Hominine fossils found in dry grassland environments led anthropologists to believe hominines lived, slept, walked upright, and died only in those environments because no hominine fossils were found in forested areas.

[76] The aquatic ape hypothesis , as originally formulated, has not been accepted or considered a serious theory within the anthropological scholarly community. Chimpanzees, bonobos, gibbons [22] exhibit forms of bipedalism.

In most bipeds this is an active process, requiring constant adjustment of balance. The fact that no hominine fossils were found in forests does not ultimately lead to the conclusion that no hominines ever died there.

4 million years old Ardipithecus ramidus suggest bipedalism, it is thus possible that bipedalism evolved very early in homininae and was reduced in chimpanzee and gorilla when they became more specialized. , The Evolution of Human Bipedality Journal of Human Evolution, 26, 183-202, (1994).

” [44] Sigmon argued that chimpanzees demonstrate bipedalism in different contexts, and one single factor should be used to explain bipedalism: preadaptation for human bipedalism.

Moving by a series of jumps with both feet moving together.