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“Reginald Pecock’s Vernacular Voice.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 217-236. The article, then, concentrates “on examining more fully the methodological implications of Netter’s commitment to a fully contextualized reading of his patristic authorities” (234). Chapter three analyzes Pecock’s position on the controversial issue of lay Bible reading, highlighting his efforts to draw readers away from the Lollard textual community into a new community structured around the authoritative book of reason. “‘Iusti sunt omnia’: Note a margine del ‘De statu innocencie’ di John Wyclif.” (c. Here Wyclif paints the features of man in the Edenic state, connecting them to some remarkable themes concerning nature, dominion, grace and free will. [This essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that Langland engages with “lollard” genres in order to think through critiques of theoretical poverty. More broadly, however, he argues that study of ecclesiastical humanism raises questions about the relevance of “the Wycliffite paradigm” in the latter half of the fifteenth century.] Coleman, Janet. [“The article focuses on the poem “Saint Erkenwald” . Additionally, it presents the discovery of a sarcophagus containing an inexplicably preserved corpse. [Levy describes Wyclif’s views on the authority of scripture, the nature of the literal sense, and the relationship between personal piety and exegesis as typical of late medieval theologians. She situates medieval drama, therefore, both in its vernacular literary setting, as a genre composed against the same cultural background as is a study of the interpretation of the Bible in the late Middle Ages. [A detailed discussion that starts with Biblical scholarship, and moves to ways in which biblical knowledge was disseminated to the laity during the century, including the Wycliffite translation along with private devotions and sermons. [Otto discusses how Giles of Rome and John Wyclif developed Augustine’s ecclesiology, especially ideas from City of God, into two contrasting arguments about the institutional church’s authority.] Overstreet, Samuel A. “‘Antichrist’ bei Wyclif.” Patschovsky and Šmahel 83-98. and Wycliffite writings in light of Langland’s B-C revisions. [Abstract:” This article examines the contents and manuscript contexts of the Lollard treatise ‘A Schort Reule of Lif’ to show how Lollards participated in mainstream religious trends and more orthodox Christians utilized a Lollard text that appealed to their common interests.

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[Disagreeing with Rex’s view of lollards as “backward-looking, embattled survivors of a defeated movement” (440), Betteridge argues that their thought did influence later writers: “Tyndale was not a Lollard and yet his work displays a clear an unambiguous engagement with many of Lollardy’s central concerns, above all the aspiration that individual Christians study scripture and debate its meaning with fellow believers” (442). [According to the book’s notes, “This book reconstructs Wyclif’s discourse on the theological and political consequences of his radically new insight into the integrity of man and nature as regards the good, free and beautiful life, communicated to his contemporary scholastic and lay audience. [This study presents Chaucer as having “reformist sympathies.” Of particular interest here for Lollard studies is the first chapter, “Dimensions of Judgment in the . While theatrum was thought of as a site of spectacle during the Middle Ages, the term was more closely connected with immodest behavior and lurid forms of festive culture. Taylor ultimately rejects poverty as a widespread Christian virtue and instead favors labor as the primary force that sanctifies the larger community in protecting it from material deprivation.”] —. Among other texts, the essay features analysis of Pierce the Plowman’s Crede, Hou Sathanas & his Prestis & his Feined Religious, and Of Pseudo-Friars.] Cré, Marleen. Like Ockham, Wyclif believed that the papacy was established by Christ, although not as it exists in its present form. Recent detailed studies of Lollard texts have underlined a continuity of belief and polemic. Such a voice typically arises in “apologetic, metatextual, and polemical contexts,” and indicated the variety of intended audiences, both sympathetic and not.] —. [In this essay, Peikola describes different styles of the sanctorale (lists of lessons for the feasts of saints) in Wycliffite Bibles and argues that changes over time point to an increasingly orthodox readership. [“Traces the mainstream of early English reaction to the spread of the predestinarian doctrines of the continental reformers which began to dominate England’s Protestant leadership during the Edwardian years. Similar to Eamon Duffy’s work, Peters “stresses and defined the importance of continuity” in late medieval religious practice (2). For both Marian and Christ-centered devotion, our assumptions concerning the relationship between religion and gender need to be reconsidered” (4-5). [Superseded in 2004 by the new entry by Anne Hudson and Anthony Kenny.] Read, Stephen. This chapter argues that one of the ways the English book gained its presence was by laying claim to the public space through an alignment with the ‘common profit'” (210).] Robson, J. Finally: included because they are the best, or even because they are right. “After Arundel: The Closing or the Opening of the English Mind? [Refuting the claim that Arundel’s Constitutions muted England’s intellectual culture in the fifteenth century, Catto argues that “there is abundant evidence of vitality on the part of the educated laity and their largely monastic suppliers of spiritual instruction.” He considers the shift away from speculative theology in light of a larger continental tradition and discusses Parisian influences on Lancastrian literature.] Catto, Jeremy, Pamela Gradon, and Anne Hudson. Furthermore, the notion of ens logicum (as intermediate between statements and facts) will be compared to Walter Burley’s propositio in re of which it appears to be a close analogon. “‘And my boonus had dried vp as critouns’: The History of the Translation of Psalm 101.4.” . The city of York was more proactive than reactive, preventing heresy from taking hold in the city or diocese by presenting an actively reforming church.”] Gregory, D. “The Preachers’s Reading of Early English Literature.” 35.2 (2000): 204-222. This means that we will first discuss the related questions of divine will and human freedom, and their impact upon his soteriology. Minnis considers Sir Lewis Clifford, William White, Wyclif (the ), Netter, and Pecock in his discussion.] —. The substances are the ultimate foundation of all these expressions. It would be a foolish student who referred to (for instance) Gairdner’s century-old study of “Lollardy and the Reformation” for accurate knowledge about the movement. La doctrine eucharistique de Jean Wyclif.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 87-112. “The Hungarian-speaking Hussites of Moldavia and Two English Episodes in their History.” 4.1 (May 2006): 3-24. 2) The second part deals with two semantic and metaphysical implications of the ‘pan-propositionalism’: (a) the extended notion of being (ampliatio entis) called upon to explain the truth of so-called non-standard propositions (e.g. “From Sacred Mystery to Divine Deception: Robert Holkot, John Wyclif and the Transformation of Fourteenth-Century Eucharistic Discourse.” 29.2 (2005): 129-44. [“Credulity,” or “the gullibility of an unletters populace” about the “controlling rhetoric of the church,” is a recurrent them in Marsilio of Padua, William of Ockham, and John Wyclif. Then we will examine his views on sin, grace, merit, justification, faith, and predestination, all within the larger medieval context. “Wyclif’s Eden: Sex, Death, and Dominion.” Bose and Hornbeck 59-78. This idea in itself is not opposed to a conceptualist account of language. [Bose investigates how Wycliffite and other reformist writers used the life of Christ to “anchor, define, and legitimize” their positions, describing Christ’s vita as common discursive ground for scholastic theologians. [A commentary on Wyclif and studies of his life just before the quincentary of his death. In the play, Falstaff represents a reformationist distrust of the image and reflects. “Reginald Pecock’s vision of religious education for ‘alle cristen peple’ in fifteenth-century England.” Ph. The first two chapters examine continuities between the sophisticated religious prose of the late fourteenth century and Pecock’s corpus in terms of the way that these works sought to influence the pious laity through instruction on devotional practices . This state is used as a standard of measure of the fallen man’s condition. He goes on to argue that Lollardy emerges from Wycliffism, but it also goes beyond “a set of classifiable (and condemnable) beliefs” (27), offering a kind of “generic consistency” for texts, both Wycliffite and not, written both before and after 1382.] —. Moreover, it suggests how its orthodoxy is constructed through its baptismal aspects.”] —. Standing on the firm ground of Augustinian realism, Wyclif disputes the modern logicians, who refute the existence of universals and thus chip away at the foundations of the Christian faith. [Lollards adapted the content of some orthodox works, including commentaries on the basics of the faith. [Mc Cormack discusses passages in which lollardy is mentioned or alluded to in Chaucer’s works, and reviews critical commentary on these passages.] —. Their attitude tended to erode the distinction, emphasized by the scholars of St. “Wyclif’s Influence upon Central and Eastern Europe.” New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. [O’Donnell outlines Wyclif’s argument against Confirmation in the , Netter’s extensive reply, and puts them into context, noting that both were rehearsing earlier arguments, but that differences occur in methodology, especially in Netter’s disagreement with Wyclif’s 61.1 (Jan. [“The article discusses the tenure of 14th-century English theologian and church reformer John Wycliffe as the prebend of Aust in the collegiate church of Westbury-on-Trym in Gloucestershire, England. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3, Folge 179. While it is possible that some changes were made for ideological reasons, on the whole, changes made with regard to “sensitive matters” stressed the “nature of the poem as a poem” (10).] Peck, Russell. The text survives in seven fifteenthcentury religious miscellanies, ranging from predominantly Lollard collections to those with primarily mainstream texts. In addition to Wycliffite sermons, the essay analyzes works by Reginald Pecock and Nicholas Love’s Mirror.] Bostick, Curtis V. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. Lord Cobham or John Castle, the leader of the Lollard rebellion and friend of the young Prince Henry, the fictional character of Falstaff pricks the prince’s conscience about his family’s theft of the crown. My primary concern shall be to show how this treatise can be considered as an important laboratory where Wyclif tests the concepts he was working on.”] —. ] Whethamstede’s poem shows how in England the two Latin styles could work together in opposing the dissident tradition of vernacular theology, as represented in the lollard movement” (21-2). “William Langland and the Invention of Lollardy.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 37-58. “Money and the Plow, Or the Shipman’s Tale of Tithing.” 49.4 (2015): 449-73. [From the abstract: “This dissertation studies the House of Fame in light of its intellectual context and its social and literary milieu. In Boethius’s and Wyclif’s defense of universals, the themes and concerns of their work align closely with those of Chaucer, in particular in his emphasis on the connection that exists between word and deed, between language and reality. Of the three so-called “Lollard” commentaries on the Pater Noster, one–the longer of the two in Arnold–“combines radically Lollard complaints,” but “a close look at the text reveals its strong connection to the existing commentary tradition, not only in terms of its ideas, but also in terms of its vocabulary and phrasing. Victor in the twelfth century, between literal and spiritual senses of scripture. The prebendary, one of four benefices held by Wycliffe in his life, is controversial because the economic benefit he derived from it seems to conflict with Wycliffe’s reputation as a critic of the Catholic Church. Analysis of scribal revision, along with a new critical edition that records variation across all seven manuscripts, shows that most scribes copied the text without concern over its Lollard affiliation. 2, contains a discussion of Oxford, with a brief mention of Wyclif. He emphasizes continuities in the two works’ pastoral aims, countering Nicholas Watson’s assertion that the two works address lay readers in contrasting ways.] —. [This book considers the relationship between the church, society and religion across five centuries of change. [The essay discusses Wyclif’s use of Wisdom , a passage of scripture that, according to Campi, Wyclif regarded as “the most difficult verse in the whole of scripture…due to the theoretical content it conveys, which relates to the issue of the creative, legislative and redemptive order imposed by God.”] —. Sharpe substantially shares the metaphysical view and principles of the other Oxford Realists, but he elaborates a completely different semantics, since he accepts the nominalist principle of the autonomy of thought in relation to the world, and Ockham’s explanation for the universality of concepts. This article seeks to shed some light on this issue through an analysis of the text “Of Mynystris in the Chirche,” a commentary on Matthew 24 and one of the longest Lollard discussions of the Bible’s eschatological prophecies. Raschko examines how the Lollard writers direct this conventional social model to reformist ends.] —.

“The Letter of Richard Wyche: An Interrogation Narrative.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 626-642. Brown examines how the teachings of an increasingly universal Church were applied at a local level and how social change shaped the religious practices of the laity. of the New Testament, in the Scottish dialets, in the possession of Lord Amherst of Hackne, on examination proves to be a Scottish rescension of Wyclif’s version.”] Bruce, Frederick F. “‘In ipso sunt idem esse, vivere, et intelligere’: Notes on a Case of Textual Bricolage.” pertaining to divine being, life, and thought. Unfortunately, this semantic approach partially undermines his defence of realism, since it deprives Sharpe of any compelling semantic and epistemological reasons to posit universalia in re. “Annihilatio e divina onnipotenza nel Tractatus de universalibus di John Wyclif.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 71-85. “Categories and Universals in the Later Middle Ages.” In Lloyd A. as an anti-Lollard critique by showing how artisans and Lollards were seen as reflections of each other.] Copeland, Rita. Specifically, this article points to a correspondence between a tension at the heart of Lollard attitudes to the theory and practice of scriptural exegesis and a tension at the heart of Lollard perspectives on end times events. “Oon of Foure: Harmonizing Wycliffite and Pseudo-Bonaventuran Approaches to the Life of Christ.” Johnson and Westphall 341-373.

Full copies of some out-of-copyright texts are now available for download on this list. Sizes of downloads are given in megabytes (mb) at the end of the entry. Whatever its fate as a religious movement, it had successfully changed the intellectual landscape of England.”] —. [Rather than seeking after a doctrinally discrete group, Ghosh asks “whether it would be possible to identify a set of religio-intellectual interests pointing, not exactly towards a definitively outlined ‘heretical’ profile perhaps, but nevertheless to a more or less coherent , characterized pre-eminently by an intelligent and informed criticism of authority. As opposed to earlier theories of the relation of the liberal arts to philosophy, which argued that the arts were “remedial,” the means by which “the ‘reasonable’ human soul is led to recognize itself and its origins, from which it has been separated” by the fall (255, 253). In describing that influence, he asserts that intellectuals after Arundel’s time shared an interest in reform with the earlier followers of Wyclif at Oxford, although the two groups disagreed on the means for that reform. “The Geography of Dissent: Lollardy, Popular Religion, and Church Reform in Late Medieval York.” Ph. The north did, in fact, develop a different religious culture from the south. “Grace and Freedom in the Soteriology of John Wyclif.” 60 (2005): 279-337. For Wyclif, the universal is numerically identical with its singulars, but numerical identity is governed by something weaker than the indiscernibility of identicals.”] Spencer, Helen Leith. [On the heresy of Dominican Richard Helmsley, condemned in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1385. Furnivall’s Last Fling: The Wyclif Society and Anglo-German Scholarly Relations, 1882-1992.” 65.272 (2014): 790-811. [From the abstract: “In Forschungen zum ‘Ackermann aus Böhmen’ (1930), Alois Bernt writes that every literary work is influenced by the time in which it was written. In addition, he uses John Wiclef’s key term—the right to property—as an interpretation of the right to possess one’s own life.”] Stevenson, Joseph. Within the chapter on the heretics, she argues that “both texts construct textual identities whose exemplary behavior in the face of imprisonment and persecution is designed to encourage other Lollards in the firmness of their beliefs, and convince [them] of the corruption of the Church. Sutherland illuminates the complicated and very self-aware stand the work’s author takes on the problem of translation.] Swanson, R. Swanson observes that the volume “would provide a channel for Wycliffite ideas to spread in the area; but that the volume was meant to join the chapel possessions suggests that it was not seen .

These have beefn bookmarked and reviewed for completeness. Spade’s, below) appears in an issue of Vivarium dedicated to medieval realism; other essays in the volume, aside from these two, specifically concern Scotus, Sharpe, and Holcot. In the , by contrast, Wyclif aligns “the idea theorica of the artes with a state of prelapsarian gracefulness and happiness, from which the methods and disciplines of contemporary academia are an inevitable decline” (257). First, the , in so far as they designate academic disciplines, are not longer thought of either as remedial of the fallen human condition, or as propaedeutic to an apprehension of divine truth. He explains that vernacular religious literature had continental influences and contends that, while it was often interested in liturgy and orthodox reform, it was still “imaginative and inventive.”] Gilpin, William. “London, British Library, Additional MS 37049 – A Spiritual Encyclopedia.” Barr and Hutchinson 99-116. The established religious culture of the north, of both the organized church and the lay spirituality, was grappling with the same issues that concerned Lollards, but came up with solutions which were perfectly in keeping with the orthodox church without falling into heresy. 244 (discussed by Hanna in “Two Lollard Codices”), Bodley 647 shows “access to a common Lollard copying centre or ‘library.” Hanna describes the history of the volume’s early use and interpretation, and concludes with an argument for its thematic coherence “devoted to a discussion of proper priesthood.” An appendix provides a full collation.] Hanna, William. According to Levy, “The popular portrayal of John Wyclif (d. Spencer includes editions of the documents relevant to his case.] —. [Spencer gives a history of Furnivall’s efforts to publish Wyclif’s Latin works, spurred by the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death in 1384.

[“This chapter examines three episodes from the life of the Blessed Virgin which Thomas Netter uses to illustrate various points in his arguments with the Lollards” (335).] —. According to the abstract, “from his death in 1430 until the middle of the eighteenth century, Netter was a much-quoted and copied author whose exposition of Catholic teaching on subjects such as the Church, religious life, and the sacraments proved useful to many Counter-Reformation polemicists and apologists. [Aers is primarily concerned with Langland, but uses Lollardy at several points. “John Wyclif: Poverty and the Poor.” 17 (2003): 55-72. The evidence that the prominent English Wycliffe and a leader of the Hussite movement in Bohemia, Peter Payne, stayed among them between 14 is also reviewed. “Material language practice” includes various choices writers make (about diction, genre, etc.), and Barr examines a variety of texts to show how later medieval writers deployed these practices to produce social commentary. “The Deafening Silence of Lollardy in the Digby Lyric.” Bose and Hornbeck 243-260. [“Walter Burley (1275-c.1344) and John Wyclif (1328-1384) follow two clearly stated doctrinal options: on the one hand, they are realists and, on the other, they defend a correspondence theory of truth that involves specific correlates for true propositions, in short: truth-makers. If God could separate accidents from their proper substances, make Christ’s body appear like mere bread, Wyclif doubts we could ever be sure of anything. [Based on comments in the Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, Dove describes the Lollards’ biblical agenda as threefold: “to enable simple people to have the Bible (or access to it), to understand it, and to live in accordance with it.” This essay primarily discusses the issue of understanding scripture, comparing statements on literal and figurative interpretation in the Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible with other Middle English treatises on biblical translation, including The Holi Prophete Dauid.] Doyle, A. “Books Connected with the Vere Family and Barking Abbey.” n.s. “Heresy and Literacy: Evidence of the Thirteenth-century Exempla.” Biller and Hudson 104-111. “Richard Rolle’s English Psalter and the Making of a Lollard Tract.” 33 (2002): 294-309. The article suggests that modern readers are unfamiliar with mysticism and that college students would be better served to learn about both authors in a British literature survey course. “Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 647 and its Use, c.1410-2010.” In . [Wyclif was well acquainted with the medieval traditions of just war and crusading articulated by theologians and canon lawyers. [Minnis finds insufficient influence of Nominalism (defined as modern critics have used the term) on Chaucer. [Considers two questions asked of Brut, “whether women are suitable ministers to confect the sacrament of the Eucharist,” and “whether women confect or can confect as true priests the sacrament of the Eucharist” (92). “Translation Strategies in Middle English: The Case of the Wycliffite Bible.” , arguing that they “serve as a call to conversion” (24). “Conciliarism and Heresy in England.” Gillespie and Ghosh 155-165. “The Comparative Mobility and Immobility of Lollard Descendants in Early Modern England.” Spufford 309-31. [Staley’s fascinating work on the relationship between history and literature in the later middle ages turns here to reading, as she says, “the ways in which late-fourteenth-century English writers used, analyzed, and altered the languages of power. [Stanbury begins with Knighton’s description of the 1382 Lollard burning of an statue of St. [Stavsky examines how Wyclif and Wycliffite writers explicated and employed the story of Susanna and the Elders, paying special attention to the politics of such writing, especially manifested in their images of community.

This book is the first survey of the whole of the and it argues that there is more to Netter than anti-Lollard polemic. Aers argues that “we must be careful not to read with the prejudice that it must fit an ‘orthodoxy’ shaped by the Church’s war to eliminate Wycliffite inflections of Christianity. [The essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that, contrary to opinion of some scholars, Langland and Wyclif didn’t entirely agree on the subjects of evangelical poverty and attention to the contemporary poor. [Aers begins with orthodox accounts of the sacrament of the altar in order to think about the place of sanctification and signs in works by William Langland, John Wyclif, Walter Brut, and William Thorpe. The author concludes by exploring when the Hussites ceased to exist as a discrete cultural community in Moldavia.”] —. [Barr examines literary texts “as examples of socioliterary practice. [Barr examines the noteworthy absence of references to Lollardy in an early fifteenth-century series of lyric poems extant in Bodleian Library MS Digby 102. 92, a collection he compiled of work by John Tarteys, Robert Allington, William Milverly, Richard Lavenham, and a few anonymous tracts. Both characteristics are interdependent: such a conception of truth requires a certain kind of ontology. All natural knowledge, perhaps even all religious knowledge, would be lost. [Richard Rolle’s English Psalter was frequently copied and, by the early fifteenth century, was a source of religious controversy, as one writer complained that Lollard scribes had contaminated an otherwise orthodox text by introducing heretical glosses. Also evaluated is the benefit of studying Kempe alongside “The Wife of Bath’s Tale,” by Geoffrey Chaucer.”] Hall, L. ,’ Lollard Socio-textual Ideology, and Ricardian-Lancastrian Prose Translation.” Copeland 244-263. Yet he had become disillusioned with a Christian society that exploited these traditions to pursue destructive policies of repression and conquest, thereby forsaking the eternal Law of Christ. Langland’s consideration of Nominalism, especially concerning baptism and Trajan, is more ambiguous, though Minnis believes that Langland “avoided both Neopelagianism and Wycliffite predestinarianism by constructing a Trajan who is given full credit for his ‘truthe’ yet needs some help from a saint” (64). Minnis uses these to consider “the formulation of one issue which arose in the course of the debate: the proposed connection between two ways in which Christ’s body was made, through conception and through confection” (94). .’: Walter Brut in Debate on Women Priests.” Barr and Hutchinson 229-49. [The starting point for Minnis’s discussion is Donatism–whether a priest in sin can even so validly perform sacraments. There is no need for the saying of banns, the presence of a priest, or, indeed, for the expression of vows by the couple who are joining together in holy matrimony. She emphasizes that this is a work of spiritual instruction, in which Kempe’s oral learning is presented during the accusations. [This essay touches on Lollardy only briefly, but serves to place it within the larger range of sermon studies in the last quarter century. [To understand Gascoigne’s pessimism about reform, Russell asks whether “the English ever placed their hopes in the efficacy of the general council as a reforming body.” Focusing primarily on Netter’s . Moreover, I seek to understand the nuances and purposes of courtly address by reading literary works within the contexts of historical and explicitly political texts that sought to organize and define the events of the age and by using literary works to provide a context for those events we call ‘history.’ This book isolates and traces what is an actual search for a language of power during the reign of Richard II and scrutinizes the ways in which Chaucer and other writers participated in these attempts to articulate the concept of princely power” (ix). Katherine to argue for a materialist consideration of “the relationship between the image debate as it developed in later fourteenth-century England and the circulation or entailment of images as forms of property.

In particular, it discusses Jakob Wimpheling’s prefatory material to his edition of a medieval classic, Petrus Aureolus’s (1319), which is subtle and discriminating in its appreciation of the Ciceronian and Augustinian strands of Aureolus’s scholarship. an attempt to establish and unite a community of readers around his books, to influence and thus change the ways they understand their faith, the world, and their place in it. Broadly speaking, he gleans vernacular terms and arguments of recent coinage that represent valued practices within a community of practitioners who have distinguished themselves, for better and for worse, as innovators in English. “Childhood, Pedagogy, and the Literal Sense: From Late Antiquity to the Lollard Heretical Classroom.” Scase, Copeland, and Lawton 125-156. “Toward a Social Genealogy of Translation Theory: Classical Property Law and Lollard Property Reform.” Beer 173-183. “Sophistic, Spectrality, Iconoclasm.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 112-130. He wants to examine these three topics together because “they all speak to those criteria which are essential for constituting a genuine pope as opposed to a mere pretender” (141). Rather than being a simple tale of heresy and orthodoxy, therefore, this late medieval conflict turned on the question of professional expertise, rights and responsibilities.”] —. The book describes a progression through chapters on Wyclif, Woodford, Netter, Hussite controversies, and Gerson.] —. The Lollard Attribution of the ‘Diuers treateses of Joh. Furthermore, they developed the metaphor in a new way that provided a positive alternative for the illiterate, arguing that the simple and unlearned read not from the book of art but rather from the natural world around them.”] —. “Hot Literacy in Cold Societies: A Comparative Study of the Sacred Power of Writing.” , and Walter Brut’s self-defense at his trial–to “explore the cultural implications of the apocalyptic political expectations and geography” which they exemplify (96). It is argued that the structural and textual development of the tables testifies to a gradual loss of Wycliffite ideological control over the use and design of the English tables of lections. ) Production Under the Looking Glass: The Case of Columbia University, Plimpton Add. Note that much recent work building on Peterson has been published by, especially, Siegfried Wenzel. “Le Prédications Popularies: Les Lollards et le soulèvement des travailleurs angalis en 1381.” demonstrates that Chaucer is very attentive to contemporary political debates. “A New Language of Authority: The Growth of Vernacular Religious Literacy in England during the Later Middle Ages.” Ph D diss. This subjectivity, which makes the Tale similar to other contemporary mystical and devotional texts, defines its distinct vernacularity in contrast to contemporary Lollard texts. “The World Made Flesh: Wycliffite Hermeneutics, Pedagogy, and Polemic.” Ph. This dissertation seeks to examine and describe just such a context, focusing not so much on Wycliffite activity as it does on the rationale that undergirds that activity. “Devotional Literature and Lay Spiritual Authority: Imitatio Clerici in . She notes that at the time that these models were being developed in the later fourteenth century Wyclif was critiquing the traditional orders and “advocated a radical form of identity between lay and priestly practice” (xii). Her conclusion considers several fifteenth-century manuscripts containing these works to show how later compilers envisioned the use of these texts in the wake of Arundel.] Richardson, H.