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Although updated standards that define capabilities beyond those defined in the current 4G standards are under consideration, those new capabilities have been grouped under the current ITU-T 4G standards. A new mobile generation has appeared approximately every 9 years since the first 1G system, Nordic Mobile Telephone, was introduced in 1982.
In 2012, the European Commission, under the lead of Neelie Kroes, committed 50 million euros for research to deliver 5G mobile technology by 2020.Predecessor technologies have been on the market a few years before the new mobile generation, for example the pre-3G system Cdma One/IS95 in the US in 1995, and the pre-4G systems Mobile Wi MAX in South-Korea 2006, and first release-LTE in Scandinavia 2009.In April 2008, NASA partnered with Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to develop 5G communication technology.In its white paper, 5G Empowering Vertical Industries, 5G PPP, the collaborative research programme organized as part of the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme, suggests that to support the main vertical sectors in Europe—namely automotive, transportation, healthcare, energy, manufacturing, and media and entertainment—the most important 5G infrastructure performance requirements are a latency below 5 ms, support for device densities of up to 100 devices/m In 2012, NYU WIRELESS was established as a multidisciplinary research centre, with a focus on 5G wireless research, as well as its use in the medical and computer-science fields.The centre is funded by the National Science Foundation and a board of 10 major wireless companies (as of July 2014) that serve on the Industrial Affiliates board of the centre.such as the Internet of Things (internet connected devices), as well as broadcast-like services and lifeline communication in times of natural disaster.
Carriers, chipmakers, OEMS and OSATs, such as Advanced Semiconductor Engineering (ASE) and Amkor Technology, Inc., have been preparing for this next-generation (5G) wireless standard, as mobile systems and base stations will require new and faster application processors, basebands and RF devices. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the spectrum for 5G, including the 28 GHz, 37 GHz and 39 GHz bands, on 14 July 2016.
Fourth generation (4G) systems fully compliant with IMT Advanced were first standardized in 2012.
The development of the 2G (GSM) and 3G (IMT-2000 and UMTS) standards took about 10 years from the official start of the R&D projects, and development of 4G systems began in 2001 or 2002.
Mobile generations typically refer to non–backward-compatible cellular standards following requirements stated by ITU-R, such as IMT-2000 for 3G and IMT-Advanced for 4G.
In parallel with the development of the ITU-R mobile generations, IEEE and other standardization bodies also develop wireless communication technologies, often for higher data rates, higher frequencies, shorter transmission ranges, no support for roaming between access points and a relatively limited multiple access scheme.
In November 2012, a research project funded by the European Union under the ICT Programme FP7 was launched under the coordination of IMDEA Networks Institute (Madrid, Spain): (Interworking and JOINt Design of an Open Access and Backhaul Network Architecture for Small Cells based on Cloud Networks).