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Iron key dating

The Jesuits were equipped with the knowledge of local languages as well as mathematics and astronomy that were required to understand these Indian needed these texts to understand the local customs and how the dates of traditional festivals were fixed by Indians using the local calendar (panchnga).

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This is why it was so well suited to the most exuberant numerical or arithmetical-cosmogonic speculations of Indian culture.""The Indian people were the only civilization to take the decisive step towards the perfection of numerical notation.The squiggles used for 4 to 9, however, are clear ancestors of the numbers we use today.These symbols were gradually taken up by Arabs and came to Western attention in the 13The translation of De numero Indorum slightly predates the man who is credited with introducing the system to the West. In the comments in his book Liberabaci, written in 1202, he states that " pages 227-228. Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, ..., who died sometime before 850, wrote more than a half dozen astronomical and mathematical works, of which the earliest were probably based on the In this work, based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta, al-Khwarizmi gave so full an account of the Hindu numerals that he probably is responsible for the widespread but false impression that our system of numeration is Arabic in origin. Many Arab authors took up the subjects communicated to them by the Hindus and worked them out in original compositions , commentaries and extracts.We owe the discovery of modern numeration and the elaboration of the very foundations of written calculations to India alone."It is clear how much we owe to this brilliant civilization, and not only in the field of arithmetic; by opening the way to the generalization of the concept of the number, the Indian scholars enabled the rapid development of mathematics and exact sciences.The discoveries of these men doubtless required much time and imagination, and above all a great ability for abstract fact, the latter is so deeply ingrained in Indian thought and tradition that one meets it in all fields of study, from the most advanced mathematical ideas to disciplines completely unrelated to 'exact sciences.It took them about 300 years to fully comprehend its working. Jesuit records show that they sought out these texts as inputs to the Gregorian calendar reform.

This reform was needed to solve the latitude problem of European navigation.

Knowledge of the Hindu system spread through the Arab world, reaching the Arabs of the West in Spain before the end of the tenth century.

The earliest European manuscript, which came from the Hindu numerals were modified in north-Spain from the year 976.

Because of this book with the Latin translations made a false inquiry that our system of numeration is arabic in origin.

The new notation came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, or more carelessly, algorismi; ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi, now means, more generally, any peculiar rule of procedure or operation.

was published in a book Cultural Foundations of Mathematics.