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In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed campaign was started to enter the Hungarian capital.This time, the Holy League's army was twice as large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Croat, Dutch, Hungarian, English, Spanish, Czech, Italian, French, Burgundian, Danish and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers, artillerymen, and officers.

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In 1849 the Chain Bridge linking Buda with Pest was opened as the first permanent bridge across the Danube and in 1873 Buda and Pest were officially merged with the third part, Óbuda (Old Buda), thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest.By 1547 the number of Christians was down to about a thousand, and by 1647 it had fallen to only about seventy.The unoccupied western part of the country became part of the Habsburg Empire as Royal Hungary.Following the liberation of Hungary from Nazi Germany by the Red Army, Soviet military occupation ensued, which ended only in 1991.The Soviets exerted significant influence on Hungarian political affairs.Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, Semmelweis University and Budapest University of Technology and Economics, which have been ranked among the top 500 in the world.

Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions, the most visited art museum is the Museum of Fine Arts, which is noted for one of the largest collections of all periods of European art and comprises more than 100,000 pieces.

The Christian forces plundered Buda, and in the next few years, all of the former Hungarian lands, except areas near Timișoara (Temesvár), were taken from the Turks.

In the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, these territorial changes were officially recognized to show the end of the rule of the Turks, and in 1718 the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule. The national insurrection against the Habsburgs began in the Hungarian capital in 1848 and was defeated one and a half years later, with the help of the Russian Empire.

From 24 December 1944 to 13 February 1945, the city was besieged during the Battle of Budapest.

Budapest suffered major damage caused by the attacking Soviet and Romanian troops and the defending German and Hungarian troops.

Some other diplomats also abandoned diplomatic protocol and rescued Jews.