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Type IIa is removal of the inner labia; Type IIb, removal of the clitoral glans and inner labia; and Type IIc, removal of the clitoral glans, inner and outer labia. Type III (infibulation or pharaonic circumcision), the "sewn closed" category, involves the removal of the external genitalia and fusion of the wound.The inner and/or outer labia are cut away, with or without removal of the clitoral glans.
The term infibulation derives from fibula, Latin for clasp—the Ancient Romans reportedly fastened clasps through the foreskins or labia of slaves to prevent sexual intercourse.Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.The WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA issued a joint statement in 1997 defining FGM as "all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons".Several studies have suggested that survey responses are unreliable.There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM, and it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although the laws are poorly enforced.
Since 2010 the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood.
In half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five.
Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group.
Type IV describes miscellaneous procedures, including symbolic circumcision.
Type II (excision) is the complete or partial removal of the inner labia, with or without removal of the clitoral glans and outer labia.
In Egypt 77 percent of FGM procedures, and in Indonesia over 50 percent, were performed by medical professionals as of 20.