Archaeological methods of dating
Also a tribe called the Ju who lived North of lake Bialkel are mentioned in the and using the deer to pull a carriage.Reindeer domestication however may not have occurred at the one time of course.
Considering the fact that humans have hunted reindeer for 40,000 years, reindeer compared with other domesticate animals were domesticated quite late: sheep, the earliest domesticated animal, between 9-11000 BC, cattle 8000 BC, pigs 9000 BC, and Chickens 6000 BC.Originally reindeer were herded and the annual migration was closely followed by nomadic herders who tended the herd.Furthermore with some small differences domesticated reindeer, unlike other domesticated animals such as sheep, pigs and cattle, retain their intrinsic similarity to their wild counterparts.The shorter period can only be corroborated by ethnographic observation, such as the development about 3,000 years ago of certain implements used by the nomadic pastoral people, for example the Sayan, Sami and Tungus of the Eurasian arctic and subarctic, such as saddles and sleds.In addition evidence concerning the dating of domestication may also be ascertained by anthropological studies and drawings in caves and upon rocks depicting domestication.References to reindeer husbandry, the traditional reindeer herding and their use as meat, clothing transport and similar issues are of course included here as part of the information concerning reindeer.
I and many others of a similar persuasion would like to see the exploitation of reindeer for meat, skins, entertainment and as other resources and uses consigned to history forever with a future where reindeer and other domesticated animals are left to live out the course of their lives unmolested.
Because reindeer are so well adapted to their environment little selective breeding has taken place and domesticated reindeer can breed successfully with their wild counterparts and would soon return to their original natural state.
Reindeer it seems were easy to domesticate, being docile with a trusting disposition they seemed to like people allowing themselves to be groomed, petted, milked, dehorned, even castrated!
The Reindeer is in fact the only domesticated deer in the world and was the last animal to be domesticated, though it may be more accurate to consider reindeer as semi domesticated for many reindeer remain entirely wild, such as the large herds of caribou which continue to freely roam parts of Alaska.
Although there is archaeological evidence from cave sites such as Combe Grenal and Vergisson, France that reindeer were hunted at least 45,000 years ago it is unlikely that this animal was in anyway domesticated until about 3,000 years ago, although some estimates indicate domestication took place in Eurasia 7,000 years ago.
At the present time there is so little tangible data, with the result that the domestication of reindeer is a complex issue.