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With the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period often called the Restored Republic (1867–76) brought back Benito Juárez as president.
France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867 and Maximilian was executed.the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century.One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of a form of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519.Even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office.The Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854.During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture.
Perhaps nothing better represents this hybrid background than Mexico's languages: the country is both the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America.
A brief period of monarchy (1821–23), called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824.
Legal racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas.
Increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, railways, mining, industry, foreign trade, and national finances.
The Mexican Revolution is the chaotic period between 19 when Mexicans fought to determine their future after the end of the Díaz era.
Although little had been done for the nation's poor, the sparking forces of the Mexican Revolution were elites outside Díaz's inner circle, such as Francisco Madero, a member of one of the richest land-owning families in Mexico, plus liberal intellectuals, and industrial labor activists.