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To the Futurists, cinema was an ideal art form, being a fresh medium, and able to be manipulated by speed, special effects and editing.
Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide.The Italian film industry took shape between 19, led by three major organizations: Cines, based in Rome; and the Turin-based companies Ambrosio Film and Itala Film.Other companies soon followed in Milan and Naples, and these early companies quickly attained a respectable production quality and were able to market their products both within Italy and abroad.As of 2014, Italian films have won 14 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, the most of any country, as well as 12 Palmes d'Or, the second-most of any country.Early Italian films were typically adaptations of books or stage plays.While Italy's Fascist government provided financial support for the nation's film industry, most notably the construction of the Cinecittà studios, it also engaged in censorship, and thus many Italian films produced in the late 1930s were propaganda films.
Post-World War II Italy saw the rise of the influential Italian neorealist movement, which launched the directorial careers of Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, and Vittorio De Sica.
Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 film Cabiria was an even larger production, requiring two years and a record budget to produce.
Nino Martoglio's Lost in Darkness, also produced in 1914, documented life in the slums of Naples, and is considered a precursor to the Neorealist movement of the 1940s and 1950s.
Historical films such as Blasetti's 1860 (1934) and Carmine Gallone's Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal (1937) were also popular during this period.
In 1934, the Italian government created the General Directorate for Cinema (Direzione Generale per le Cinematografia), and appointed Luigi Freddi its director.
Between 19, Italy was home to the first avant-garde movement in cinema, inspired by the country's Futurism movement.